THE ENERGY SECTOR IN GHANA contributes significantly to the economy. The sector can be classified into two main sub-sectors; Petroleum and Power.
Ghana's petroleum sector involves upstream and downstream activities. The upstream activities include the procurement and refining of crude oil and gas while the downstream activities include the distribution and marketing of petroleum products and premixing of petroleum products for industrial uses, including fishing.
Distribution of petroleum products in Ghana is dominated by multinational oil marketing companies. Following the deregulation policy of the government, the oil marketing companies have increased in numbers to include several local Ghanaian companies. The products are retailed through gas stations which are either owned by the oil marketing companies (OMCs) or private individuals. There are over 20 oil marketing companies in Ghana. The private sector, including the OMCs and others, source and supply finished products through an open competitive tendering system.
The power sub-sector involves the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy for industrial, commercial and domestic use in Ghana. The power system of Ghana is run by three utility companies: the Volta River Authority (VRA), Ghana Grid Company Limited (GRIDCo) and Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG).
Electricity is the dominant modern energy form used in the industrial and service sectors, accounting for 69% of modern energy used in the two sectors of the national economy. The Ghana electricity supply industry is unbundled with separate jurisdictions and entities regarding activities of electricity generation, transmission and distribution.
There are four voltage levels, in the power grid: 330kV, 225kV, 161 kV and 69kV. The total length of the grid's transmission lines is 4315km-330kV line (219km), 225kV line (73km), 161 kV line (3,888km) and 69kV line (132km).There are 53 substations and about 100 transformers in the transmission grid of Ghana.
It is planned that Ghana's 330kV grid will form the country's backbone grid by 2020. The 161 kV voltage level will serve as the regional transmission voltage.
The grid transmission network connecting the main production to consumption centres has been modelled and categorised into five zones under GRIDCo.
Zone 1: Greater Accra Region and parts of Eastern, Central and Volta Regions
Zone 2: Western Region and part of Central Region