The main issue, for the Kurds, is their status in the future Iraq. For once unanimous, the Kurdish political parties conceive only one solution: federalism. "Now we are independent, and we are asking for reunification. Federation is the only solution," claims the PUK's Berham Saleh. Anxious not "to be left behind by the train," as Massoud Barzani puts it, the KDP put forward a draft constitution for Iraq and for the Kurdish region last autumn. Written by Kurdish constitutional law experts, this 15-page document lays down very clearly the relations foreseen between the Kurdish region and the central government.
Item one of the text, General Principles of Federalism for Iraq, declares: "Iraq is a federal state with a republican, democratic, parliamentarian and multi-party system called the Federal Republic of Iraq."
The envisioned republic will consist of two regions. The Arab region embracing central and southern Iraq, along with the provinces of Mosul and Nineveh in the north, but excluding some districts.
The proposed Iraqi Kurdistan region includes the provinces of Kirkuk, Suleimania and Erbil, within the administrative boundaries in place prior to 1968, and the province of Dohuk, the sub-district of Zimar in the province of Nineveh, the districts of Khanakin and Mandili in the province of Diyala, and the district of Badra in the province of Al Wasit. "The geographic boundaries of the region shall be delineated in the Federal Constitution," concludes this section of the draft.
The anticipated federal republic will have a president, a judicial authority and a legislative body composed of two chambers. The National Federal Assembly, elected on a proportional basis and an Assembly of the Regions, made up of members drawn in equal numbers from the two regional assemblies. On the council of ministers, a prime minister and a number of additional ministers will represent the two regions in proportion to the total population of the Federal Republic of Iraq. Each of the two regions will have its own legislative assembly, regional president, council of ministers and court system.
Four aspects of the Kurdish draft constitution are eye-catching. Item 14 states that: "On the occasion of the election of the president of the Federal Republic of Iraq from one of the regions, then the prime minister of the Federal Republic of Iraq shall be from the other region." In other words, if the president of the federal republic is an Arab, the prime minister will...