As already mentioned, the biggest contribution to African urbanisation is being made by cities in the second rank; that is, those with fewer than 1m inhabitants. While Dar es Salaam attracts most attention in Tanzania, ambitious plans have been drawn up to change the face of the northern town of Arusha.
Best known as the administrative centre of the East African Community (EAC), the home of the international Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and to tourists as the starting point for safari journeys around the Tanzanian northern wildlife park circuit, it is about the enjoy a face lift.
The city council has drawn up a programme designed to turn the town into the 'Geneva of Africa', based on its proximity to mountains and lakes. Funding has been provided by the World Bank and the Danish International Development Agency (Danida).
The city centre's roads will all be upgraded, with new traffic lights and junctions designed to improve the flow of traffic through the town.
Environment concerns are being tackled through the provision of new drainage infrastructure and the development of a citywide waste disposal network. Rubbish will be collected by modern tracks and disposed of at the new seven-hectare Muriet dump site.
In Phase 2, four new roads stretching over 7.4 kilometres will be constructed to ease travel into the city from outlying areas...