• The Armenian-Turkish Protocols. A politico-legal critique of the Protocols on the establishment and development of relations between Armenia and Turke

Lambert Academic Publishing
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(Harout Akdedian is currently a PhD candidate in international law, and Teaching Assistant at the UN University for Peace. He has a BA in political science and an MA in international law. He is also a Research Fellow at the Human Rights Centre in Costa Rica.)


The closed borders between Armenia and Turkey date back to 1993. In 2009, the two states signed the Protocols for establishing diplomatic relations in an attempt at reconciliation. The delay of ratification, ever since the signature of the documents, has pushed many to consider the Protocols as ‘dead’. The Turkish parliament, on the other hand, claimed otherwise by reintroducing the Protocols into the agenda of the new legislature in September 2011. Throughout the past three years, similar fluctuations in approach and assessment have characterized the political processing of the documents. This monograph treats the Protocols as an ongoing process and analyzes the documents at two different junctures: first in the context of their introduction, and then regarding their significance today. The study reveals the attempt of both states to sideline their long-standing principled oppositions in exchange for a more pragmatic approach. The politico-legal analysis of the Protocols reveals the challenges and the prospects of pragmatism in the Armenian-Turkish context.

MATERIAS: Genocide, History, Law, Politics, Turkish, treaty, protocols, Armenia, Caucasus, Nagono-Karabakh